Decree about weights and measures

I Eleusis 237 Date: ca. 120 BC
. . . [1] . . . (1) [but if one of the buyers disputes?] [a measure as being too small, let the officials (archontes) examine it against the master measure (sumbolon) in the?] (1)Sunshade” or in Piraeus or at Eleusis;[2] . . . the owner of the measure (metron) shall be arrested . . . of the one who disputed the measure (metrou) . . . the officials shall - the measure (metrou) to the public bank (dēmosian trapezan)[3] . . . (5) list of goods to be auctioned (?); and if he is a slave (oiketēs), let him receive fifty strokes of the whip, and they shall destroy [the measure]; and if the officials do not support the individuals (i.e. complainants), the Council of Six Hundred shall [compel them]. (2) The officials that the laws specify shall make copies (sēkōmata) equivalent to the master measures (sumbola) that have been created for wet and dry measures and weights,[4] and shall compel those selling anything in the Agora or in the workshops (ergastēriois) or shops (kapēleiois) or wine shops (oinōsin) or warehouses (apothēkais) (10) to use these measures and weights, measuring all the liquids by the same measure, and it shall no longer be permitted for any official to make measures or weights greater or less than these; and if any official does this or does not compel the sellers to sell with these, he shall owe a thousand drachmas to be consecrated to Demeter and the Girl (Korēi) and any Athenian who wishes may compile a list of his property to secure payment of the money. Similarly (15) they shall be required to examine the measures and weights to make sure they are equal in future, and the Council of Six Hundred in session in the month of Hekatombaion shall ensure[5] that no seller or buyer uses a measure or weight that is not true to the master measure (asumblētōi), but only the correct ones (dikaiois). (3)[6] And those selling dried Persian nuts (walnuts) and dried almonds and Herakleian hazelnuts (filberts) and pine-nuts and chestnuts and Egyptian beans (nelumbo seeds) (20) and dates and any other dried fruits sold with these, and lupines and olives and edible seeds, shall sell them with a measure of capacity of three half-choinikes of grain levelled off, selling them with the choinix heaped up, with a depth of five fingers (daktulōn) and a width at the rim of one finger; and similarly those selling fresh almonds and newly picked olives and dried figs shall sell them with a choinix heaped up, twice the size of the one previously mentioned, (25) with a rim three half-fingers wide, and they must use wooden choinikes; and if anyone sells fresh almonds or newly picked olives or dried figs [otherwise?] or with another type of vessel, the vessel must have a capacity of not less than a medimnos of grain; and if he sells in a smaller vessel the official responsible shall immediately sell the contents by auction and pay the price into the public bank and destroy the vessel. (4)[7] The commercial mina (hē mna hē emporikē) shall weigh (30) one hundred and thirty-eight drachmas of crown-bearing (stephanēphorou) silver[8] according to the weights in the mint plus a [make-weight] of twelve drachmas of crown-bearing silver, and everyone shall sell all goods by this mina, except for those expressly specified to be sold according to the silver standard (pros argurion),[9] setting the beam of the scales level at a weight of one hundred and fifty drachmas of crown-bearing silver; the [commercial] five minas shall have a make-weight of one commercial mina, so that when the beam of the scales is level it shall weigh (35) six commercial minas; the commercial talent shall have a make-weight of five commercial minas, so that when the beam of the scales is level it shall weigh one commercial talent and five commercial minas; and they shall all correspond with the measures and weights in the commercial market (emporiōi). (5) So that the measures and weights may remain for the future, the man responsible for provision of the measures and weights, Diodoros son of Theophilos of Halai,[10] shall hand them over to the public slave (dēmosiōi) appointed in the ”Sunshade” (40) and the one in the Piraeus with the [manager?] and the one in Eleusis; they shall keep them safe, giving copies (sēkōmata) of the measures and weights to the officials and all the others who need them, and not be permitted to change (?) them or to remove anything from the designated buildings except for the lead [and bronze] copies that have been created . . . (6) If they (public slaves) charge anyone money . . . (45) . . . to those who have need (?) . . . the one appointed in the “Sunshade” shall be punished by the prytaneis and the hoplite general, whipping and punishing him according to the seriousness of the offence; and the appointed manager of [the harbour] (shall punish) the one in the Piraeus; and the hierophant and the men appointed each year (to supervise) the festival Assembly (panēgurin) (shall punish) the one in Eleusis.[11] (7) The public slaves shall hand over to the public slaves appointed to (50) succeed them all the measures and weights together with a list of them; and if they fail to hand over anything, they shall be made to do so by their supervisors according to the decree, and if [they destroy anything], they shall provide replacements for those that are destroyed; and they shall deposit a handwritten account in the Metroon of what they have received and what they have handed over; and if they do not deposit this, they shall not be permitted to receive wages for another public service (leitourgian).[12] (8) Copies (sēkōmata) shall be dedicated on the acropolis of the commercial talent (55) and the ten mina and the five mina and the two mina and the mina and the half mina and the quarter (tartēmorou) and the chous [and the choinix].[13] (9) If anyone is caught committing an offence concerning the measures and weights located in the ”Sunshade” or in Eleusis or in the Piraeus or on the acropolis, whether he is an official or a private individual or a public slave, he shall be liable to the punishment in the law about offenders; and the Council of the Areopagos shall take care and punish anyone who has committed an offence in these matters (60) according to the laws in force about offenders;[14] and the man appointed in charge of the provision of measures and weights shall inscribe this decree on stone stelai and stand them in the buildings in which the measures and weights are located. From the same (decree):[15] the officials shall use the same measure marked with the lead symbol (charaktēri) corresponding to that in the “Sunshade”, charging no more than three obols; and the (65) officials shall use the measures which have been stamped in advance, unless anyone of the sellers [or buyers] uses a stamped measure.